Anatomical correlates of face patches  in macaque inferotemporal cortex.  Arcaro, MJ, Mautz, T, Berezovskii, VK, and Livingstone, MS. 2020. PNAS, 117:32667–32678

Arcaro, M., Ponce, C.R. & Livingstone, M.S. The neurons that mistook a hat for a face. eLife 9(e53798), 1-16 (2020).



Arcaro, M., Schade, P.F. & Livingstone, M.S. Body-map proto-organization in newborn macaques. (2019) PNAS 116:24861-24871.

Todd, N, Zhang, Y, Livingstone, M, Borsook, D, and McDannold, N. (2019) The neurovascular response is attenuated by focused ultrasound-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Neuroimage 201: 1-11.

Ponce CR, Xiao W, Schade PF, Hartmann TS, Kreiman G, Livingstone MS (2019). Evolving Images for Visual Neurons Using a Deep Generative Network Reveals Coding Principles and Neuronal Preferences. Cell 177, 999–1009. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.04.005

Livingstone MS, Arcaro MJ & Schade PF. (2019) Cortex Is Cortex: Ubiquitous Principles Drive Face-Domain Development. Trends Cogn Sci. Jan;23(1):3-4. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.10.009


Todd N, Zhang Y, Arcaro MJ, Becerra L, Borsook D, Livingstone MS & McDannold N. (2018) Focused ultrasound induced opening of the blood-brain barrier disrupts inter-hemispheric resting state functional connectivity in the rat brain. Neuroimage. Sep;178:414-422. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.05.063.


Crake C, Brinker ST, Coviello CM, Livingstone MS & McDannold NJ. (2018) A dual-mode hemispherical sparse array for 3D passive acoustic mapping and skull localization within a clinical MRI guided focused ultrasound device. Phys Med Biol. Mar 15;63(6):065008. doi: 10.1088/1361-6560/aab0aa.


Arcaro MJ, Schade PF, Vincent JL, Ponce CR & Livingstone MS. (2017) Seeing faces is necessary for face-domain formation. Nat Neurosci. Oct;20(10):1404-1412. doi: 10.1038/nn.4635.


Arcaro MJ & Livingstone MS. (2017) Retinotopic Organization of Scene Areas in Macaque Inferior Temporal Cortex. J Neurosci. Aug 2;37(31):7373-7389. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0569-17.2017.


Arcaro MJ & Livingstone MS. (2017) A hierarchical, retinotopic proto-organization of the primate visual system at birth. Elife. Jul 3;6. pii: e26196. doi: 10.7554/eLife.26196.


Ponce CR, Lomber SG & Livingstone MS. (2017) Posterior Inferotemporal Cortex Cells Use Multiple Input Pathways for Shape Encoding. J Neurosci. May 10;37(19):5019-5034. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2674-16.2017. Epub 2017 Apr 17.


Livingstone MS, Vincent JL, Arcaro MJ, Srihasam K, Schade PF & Savage T. (2017) Development of the macaque face-patch system. Nat Commun. Mar 31;8:14897. doi: 10.1038/ncomms14897.


Ponce CR, Hartmann TS & Livingstone MS. (2017) End-Stopping Predicts Curvature Tuning along the Ventral Stream. J Neurosci. Jan 18;37(3):648-659. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2507-16.2016.


Ataman B, Boulting GL, Harmin DA, Yang MG, Baker-Salisbury M, Yap EL, Malik AN, Mei K, Rubin AA, Spiegel I, Durresi E, Sharma N, Hu LS, Pletikos M, Griffith EC, Partlow JN, Stevens CR, Adli M, Chahrour M, Sestan N, Walsh CA, Berezovskii VK, Livingstone MS & Greenberg ME. (2016) Evolution of Osteocrin as an activity-regulated factor in the primate brain. Nature. Nov 10;539(7628):242-247. doi: 10.1038/nature20111.


Ponce CR, Genecin MP, Perez-Melara G & Livingstone MS. Automated chair-training of rhesus macaques. (2016) J Neurosci Methods. Apr 1;263:75-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2016.01.024.

McDannold, Zhang, Power, Arvanitis, Vykhodtseva and Livingstone (2015) Targeted, noninvasive blockade of cortical neuronal activity, Scientific Reports


Livingstone MS, Pettine WW, Srihasam K, Moore B, Morocz IA, Lee D. (2014) Symbol addition by monkeys provides evidence for normalized quantity coding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. May 6;111(18):6822-7.

Srihasam K, Vincent JL, Livingstone MS. (2014) Novel domain formation reveals proto-architecture in inferotemporal cortex. Nat Neurosci. Dec;17(12):1776-83.

Arvanitis CD, Livingstone MS, McDannold N. (2013) Combined ultrasound and MR imaging to guide focused ultrasound therapies in the brain. Phys Med Biol. Jul 21;58(14):4749-61.

Arvanitis CD, Livingstone MS, Vykhodtseva N, McDannold N. (2012) Controlled ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier disruption using passive acoustic emissions monitoring. PLoS One. 7(9):e45783.

McDannold, N., C. D. Arvanitis, N. Vykhodtseva and M. Livingstone (2012). "Safety and Efficacy Evaluation of Temporary Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption via Ultrasound and Microbubbles in Rhesus Macaques." Cancer Research

Livingstone, Lafer-Sousa and Conway (2011) Stereopsis and Artistic Talent: Poor Stereopsis Among Art Students and Established Artists, Psychological Science.

Srihasam, K., Mandeville, JB, Morocz, IA, Sullivan, KJ, Livingstone, MS (2011) Behavioral and anatomical consequences of early versus late symbol training in macaques.  Neuron, 73:608-619.

Ramachandran, VS, Miller, LE, Livingstone, MS, and Brang, D (2011) Colored halos around faces and emotion-evoked colors: a new form of synesthesia.  NeuroCase, epub date 2011/11/26 DOI 10.1080/13554794.2011.608366.

Srihasam K, Sullivan K, Savage T, Livingstone MS. (2010) Noninvasive functional MRI in alert monkeys. Neuroimage. 51:267-73. PMC2847050

Livingstone MS, Srihasam K, Morocz IA.  (2010)   The benefit of symbols: monkeys show linear, human-like, accuracy when using symbols to represent scalar value.  Anim Cogn. 13:711-1719.  PMC2921054

Chen H, Russell R, Nakayama K, Livingstone M. (2010) Crossing the 'uncanny valley': adaptation to cartoon faces can influence perception of human faces. Perception. 39:378-86. PMID: 20465173


Livingstone, MS, Pack CC, Born RT (2001) 2-Dimensional substructure in MT receptive fields. Neuron 30, 781 793.

Livingstone, MS (2001) Is it warm?  Is it real?  Or just low spatial frequency?  Science 290:1299.

Conway, B.R., Hubel, D.H. and Livingstone, M. S. (2002) Color contrast in macaque V1.  Cerebral Cortex 12:915-925.

Pack, C.C., Born, R.T., and Livingstone, M.S. (2003) Two-dimensional substructure of motion and stereo interactions in primary visual cortex of alert macaque.  Neuron, 37:525-535.

Tsao, DY, Conway, BR, and Livingstone, MS (2003) Receptive fields of disparity-tuned simple cells in macaque V1. Neuron, 38, 103-114.

Conway BR and Livingstone MS (2003) Space-time maps and two-bar interactions of different classes of direction-selective cells in macaque V-1.  J. Neurophysiol. 89: 2726-2742.

Livingstone MS and Conway BR (2003) Substructure of direction-selective receptive fields in macaque V1.  J. Neurophysiol. 89, 2743-2759

Duffy, K.R. and Livingstone, M.S. (2003) Distribution of non-phosphorylated neurofilament in squirrel monkey V1 is complementary to the pattern of cytochrome oxidase blobs.  Cerebral Cortex, 13: 722-727.

Pack, CC, Livingstone, M.S., Duffy, K.R., and Born, R.T. (2003) End-stopping and the aperture problem:  two-dimensional motion signals in macaque V1.  Neuron 39, 671-680

Tsao, D.Y., Vanduffel, W., Sasaki, Y., Mandeville, J.B., Fize, D., Wald, L., Dale, A., Rosen, B., Livingstone, M.S., Orban, G., Tootell, R.B.H. (2003). "Stereopsis Activates V3A and Caudal Intraparietal Areas in Macaques and Humans." Neuron 39: 555-68.

Livingstone, MS and Conway, BR (2004)  Was Rembrandt stereoblind?  New England Journal of Medicine 351:1264-1265

Duffy, KR and Livingstone, MS (2005) Loss of neurofilament labeling in the primary visual cortex of monocularly deprived monkeys. Cerebral Cortex, 15:1146-1154.

Conway, BR and Livingstone, MS (2005)  A different point of hue. PNAS 102: 10761-2.

Conway BR, Kitaoka, A, Yazdanbakhsh, A, Pack, CC and Livingstone MS (2005) Neural basis for a powerful static motion illusion.  J. Neurosci. 25:5651-5656. PMC1431688

Howe, PD and Livingstone, MS (2006)  V1 Partially solves the stereo aperture problem.  Cerebral Cortex, 16:1332-1337. PMC2628950

Howe, PDL, Thompson, PG, Anstis, SM, Sagreiya, H, and Livingstone, MS (2006) Explaining the footsteps, belly dancer, Wenceslas, and kickback illusions.  Journal of Vision 6:1396-1405. PMC2637218

Pack, CC, Conway, BR, Born, RT and Livingstone, MS (2006) Spatiotemporal structure of  nonlinear subunits in macaque visual cortex. J. Neurosci. 26:893-907.

Tsao, DY, Freiwald, WA, Tootell, RBH and Livingstone, MS (2006) A cortical region consisting entirely of face cells. Science, 311:670-674. PMC2678572.

Yazdanbakhsh, A. and Livingstone, MS (2006) End stopping in V1 is sensitive to contrast.  Nature Neuroscience.  9:697-702. PMC2645271

Conway, BR and Livingstone MS (2006) Spatial and temporal properties of cone signal in alert macaque primary visual cortex. J. Neurosci. 26:10826-10846. PMC2963176

Howe PD, Sagreiya H, Curtis DL, Zheng CC, Livingstone MS (2007) The double-anchoring theory of lightness perception: A comment on Bressan (2006). Psychological Review 114:1105-1109. PMC2635063

Howe PD and Livingstone MS. The use of the cancellation technique to quantify the Hermann grid illusion (2007). PLoS one 2:e265. PMC1800350

Duffy, KR and Livingstone, MS (2007) Cytochrome oxidase and neurofilament reactivity in monocularly deprived human primary visual cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 17:1283-1291. PMC2628812

Livingstone, MS and Conway, BR (2007)  Contrast affects speed tuning, space-time slant, and receptive-field organization of simple cells in macaque V1.  J. Neurophysiol. 97:849-857. PMC2636564

Conway, BR and Livingstone, MS (2007) Perspectives on science and art.  Current Opin. Neurobiol. 17:476-482. PMC2813684

Tsao, DY and Livingstone, MS (2008)   Mechanisms of face perception.  Annual Review of Neuroscience. 31: 411-437. PMC2629401

Haushofer, J, Livingstone, MS and Kanwisher, N (2008) Multivariate patterns in object-selective cortex dissociate perceptual and physical shape similarity.  PLos Biol 6(7): e187. PMC2486311

Haushofer, J, Baker, CL, Livingstone, MS and Kanwisher, N (2008) Privileged coding of convex shapes in human object-selective cortex.  J. Neurophysiol. 100:753-762. PMC2525726

Libedinsky, C, Savage, T and Livingstone, M (2009)  Perceptual and physiological evidence for a role for early visual areas in motion-induced blindness. Journal of Vision  9:1-10. PMC2654591.

Freiwald WA, Tsao DY, and Livingstone MS (2009) A face feature space in the macaque temporal lobe. Nature Neuroscience 12:1187-1196. PMC2819705.

Howe PD, Horowitz TS, Morocz IA, Wolfe J, Livingstone MS. (2009) Using fMRI to distinguish components of the multiple object tracking task. J Vis. 9:10.1-11. PMC2819324.


Hubel DH and Livingstone MS (1990) Color and contrast sensitivity in the lateral geniculate body and primary visual cortex of the macaque monkey.  J. Neurosci. 10 (7):2223-2237.

 Livingstone MS and Hubel DH (1991) Comment on "Perceptual correlates of magnocellular and parvocellular channels:  Seeing form and depth in afterimages."  Vision Research 31(9):1655-1656.

 Livingstone MS, Rosen GD, Drislane FW and Galaburda AM (1991) Physiological and anatomical evidence for a magnocellular defect in developmental dyslexia.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:7943-7947.

 Livingstone MS and Hubel DH (1994) Stereopsis and positional acuity under dark adaptation.  Vision Research 34:799-802.

 Livingstone MS, Nori S, Freeman DC and Hubel DH (1994) Stereopsis and binocularity in the squirrel monkey. Vision Research 35:345 354.

 Livingstone MS (1996) Ocular dominance columns in new world monkeys.  J. Neurosci. 16:2086-2096.

 Livingstone MS (1996) Oscillatory firing and interneuronal correlations in squirrel monkey striate cortex.  J. Neurophysiol. 75(6):2467 2485.

 Livingstone MS (1996) Differences between stereopsis, interocular correlation and binocularity.  Vision Research 36(8):1127-1140.

 Livingstone MS (1998) Mechanisms of direction selectivity in macaque V1.  Neuron 20:509-526.

 Macknik SL and Livingstone MS (1998) Neuronal correlates of visibility and invisibility in the primate visual system.  Nature Neurosci. 1(2):144-149.

 Livingstone MS and Tsao DY (1999) Receptive fields of disparity-selective neurons in macaque striate cortex. Nature Neurosci. (9):825-832.


Livingstone MS, Harris-Warrick RM, and Kravitz EA (1980) Serotonin and octopamine produce opposite postures in lobsters.  Science 208: 76-79.

 Livingstone MS, Schaeffer SF and Kravitz EA (1981) Biochemistry and ultrastructure of serotonergic nerve endings in the lobster: serotonin and octopamine are contained in different nerve endings.  J. Neurobiol. 12: 27-54.

 Livingstone MS and Hubel DH (1981) Effects of sleep and arousal on the processing of visual information in the cat.  Nature 291:554-561.

 Livingstone MS and Hubel DH (1981) Thalamic inputs to cytochrome oxidase-rich regions in monkey visual cortex.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:6098-6101.

 Livingstone MS and Tempel BL (1983) A genetic dissection of monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis in Drosophila.  Nature 303:67-70.

 Land EH, Hubel DH, Livingstone MS, Perry SH and Burns MM (1983) Colour-generating interactions across the corpus callosum. Nature 303:616-618.

 Livingstone MS and Hubel DH (1983) Specificity of cortico-cortical connections in the monkey visual system. Nature 304:531-534.

 Livingstone MS and Hubel DH (1984) Anatomy and physiology of a color system in primate visual cortex.  J. Neurosci. 4:309-356.

 Tempel BL, Livingstone MS and Quinn WG (1984) Mutations in the dopa-decarboxylase gene affect learning in Drosophila.  Proc. Natl.Acad. Sci. USA 81:3577-3581.

 Livingstone MS, Sziber PP and Quinn WG (1984) Loss of calcium/calmodulin responsiveness in adenylate cyclase of rutabaga, a Drosophila learning mutant.  Cell 37:205-215.

 Livingstone MS and Hubel DH (1984) Specificity of intrinsic connections in primate primary visual cortex.  J Neuroscience 4:2830 2835.

 Hubel DH and Livingstone MS (1985) Complex-unoriented cells in a subregion of primate area 18.  Nature 315:325-327.

 Livingstone MS (1985) Genetic dissection of Drosophila adenylate cyclase.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:5992 5996.

 Livingstone MS and Hubel DH (1987) Connections between layer 4B of area 17 and the thick cytochrome oxidase stripes of area 18 in the squirrel monkey.  J. Neurosci. 7:3371-3377.

 Hubel DH and Livingstone MS (1987) Segregation of form, color and stereopsis in primate area 18.  J. Neurosci. 7:3378-3415.

 Livingstone MS and Hubel DH (1987) Psychophysical evidence for separate channels for the perception of form, color, movement and depth.  J. Neurosci. 7:3416-3468.

 Livingstone MS and Hubel DH (1988) Segregation of form, color, movement, and depth:  Anatomy, physiology, and perception.  Science 240:740-749.

 Livingstone MS and Hubel DH (1988) Do relative mapping densities of the magno- and parvocellular systems vary with eccentricity?  J. Neurosci. 8:4334-4339.